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Why do women live longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, However, we're not sure how much the influence to each of these variables is.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ابر التخسيس ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the gap is less that half a year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was much lower in the richer countries that it is today.
Let's now look at how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US between 1790-2014. Two things stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: ابر التخسيس While the female advantage in life expectancy was once very small however, it has grown significantly in the past.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.