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Why are women living longer than men?

Lilliana Kobayashi (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how the advantage has grown over time? There isn't much evidence and we only have some solutions. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental factors which all play a part in the longevity of women over men, we do not know what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men however not as in the past, has to do with the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and اضيق وضعية للجماع relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

11 months agoEverywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from every country could be expected to live for longer than her brother.

It is interesting to note that although the female advantage is present everywhere, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half an hour.

The female advantage in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes as compared to the present.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders living in America are living longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be quite small however it increased dramatically in the past century.

When you click on the option "Change country in the chart, you are able to verify that these two points apply to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.