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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-21)

4 days agoEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how does this benefit increase in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and تحاميل مهبلية environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; but we don't know exactly what the contribution to each of these variables is.

Independently of the exact amount, we can say that at a minimum, the reason women live longer than men in the present and not in the past, is to do with the fact that some fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that the advantage of women exists across all countries, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan, تحاميل مهبلية the difference is only half a year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was much lower in countries with higher incomes as compared to the present.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in America have longer lives than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was once quite small, it has increased substantially in the past.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.