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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live more than men do today and why has this advantage increased in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, psychological, and زيوت تطويل الشعر environmental factors which play a significant role in the longevity of women over men, we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

It is known that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But, this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, زيوت تطويل الشعر ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in every country can expect to live longer than her brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in the richer countries that it is today.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be quite small but it increased substantially in the past century.

You can check if these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.