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Why are women living longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? And why is this difference growing as time passes? There isn't much evidence and we're only able to provide incomplete answers. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors which all play a part in the longevity of women over males, it isn't clear what percentage each factor plays in.

5 years agoIn spite of how much number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men do today but not in the past, is to relate to the fact that some key non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that, افضل كريم للشعر while the advantage for women exists in all countries, افضل كريم للشعر cross-country differences are large. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half one year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes than it is today.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was once very small It has significantly increased with time.

When you click on the option "Change country from the chart, you are able to verify that these two points are applicable to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.