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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Ava Scutt (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present and why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an absolute conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, However, we're not sure how significant the impact to each of these variables is.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men today however not as in the past, is to have to do with the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, افضل كريم للشعر especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

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The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that, while the advantage for women exists across all countries, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

In countries with high incomes, the female advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's look at how the gender advantage in longevity has changed with time. The next chart shows the male and female lifespans at birth in the US between 1790 and افضل كريم للشعر 2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be very small, but it grew substantially over the course of the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country' on the chart, you can determine if these two points are also applicable to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.