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Why do women live longer than men?

Lilliana Kobayashi (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live much longer than men today, زيوت تطويل الشعر and why is this difference growing in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, زيوت تطويل الشعر we aren't sure what the contribution of each of these factors is.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However it is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in every country can expect to live longer than her brothers.

The chart above shows that, while the advantage for women exists across all countries, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.

In wealthy countries, the longevity advantage for women was smaller
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US live much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once tiny It has significantly increased in the past.

Using the option 'Change country' on the chart, determine if these two points are applicable to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.