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Why do women live longer than men?

Sienna Wunderly (2022-04-21)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? Why has this advantage gotten larger over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support a definitive conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we aren't sure how significant the impact of each factor is.

tafsiribnukatsirmuhaqqoq001-110113010227In spite of the precise amount, we can say that a large portion of the reason women live so much longer than men do today however not as previously, is to do with the fact that some important non-biological aspects have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and افضل شامبو وبلسم; https://glorynote.com, women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , which means that in every country baby girls can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

This chart shows that, although women have an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

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In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very small however it increased dramatically during the last century.

It is possible to verify that these are applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.