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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? What is the reason is this difference growing over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral as well as environmental factors that all play a role in the longevity of women over men, we don't know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

\u062a\u062d\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0644 \u062c\u064a\u0646\u0648 \u062f\u0643\u062a\u0627\u0631\u064a\u0646 \u0644\u0644\u0641\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0627\u062a (\u0623\u0641\u0636\u0644 \u062a\u062d\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0644 \u0645\u0647\u0628\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0625\u0644\u062a\u0647\u0627\u0628\u0627\u062a)We are aware that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. But, this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, افضل شامبو وبلسم like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could expect to live longer than her older brother.

This chart shows that, although women have an advantage across all countries, differences between countries are often significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

In countries with high incomes, the female advantage in longevity was not as great.
We will now examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The next chart plots the male and female lifespans at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small, it has increased substantially over time.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, افضل شامبو وبلسم France, and Sweden.