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Why women live longer than men?

Vilma Santora (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live more than men do today, and why is this difference growing in the past? There isn't much evidence and we're left with only limited solutions. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how much the influence to each of these variables is.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that a large portion of the reason why women live longer than men however not as in the past, has to have to do with the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

This graph shows that while there is a female advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries are often significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the difference is less that half a year.

In wealthy countries, the longevity advantage for كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور women used to be smaller
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart shows the male and female lifespans at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور there's an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small however it increased dramatically over the last century.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.