Комментарии читателей

Why do women have longer lives than men?

Ava Scutt (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live more than men do today, and العاب زوجية why does this benefit increase over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we do not know how strong the relative contribution of each of these factors is.

We have learned that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. However, this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0628 \u0632\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0641\u0639 \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0645Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

The chart below shows that while there is a female advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries than it is today.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancies at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be extremely small, but it grew substantially over the course of the last century.

Using the option 'Change country in the chart, you can verify that these two points are applicable to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and العاب زوجية the UK.