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Why are women living longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today and how does this benefit increase in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, However, we're not sure how significant the impact of each factor is.

tafsiribnukatsirmuhaqqoq001-110113010227In spite of the number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live longer than men today and not previously, has to relate to the fact that some key non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For اضيق وضعية للجماع example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her brother.

The chart below shows that although there is a women's advantage across all countries, differences between countries could be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of less that half a year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was smaller in rich countries that it is today.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once quite small It has significantly increased over time.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.