Комментарии читателей

Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Lilliana Kobayashi (2022-04-21)

2 years agoEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? Why is this difference growing in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an absolute conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, but we don't know exactly how significant the impact of each factor is.

We know that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But it is not because of certain biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for ابر التخسيس ( survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her older brother.

The chart below shows that although there is a women's advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half one year.

In rich countries the female advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the time of birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be very modest however it increased dramatically over the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country' on the chart, you will be able to check that these two points also apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.