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Why do women live longer than men?

Sienna Wunderly (2022-04-21)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women have a longer life span than men? And how is this difference growing in the past? The evidence is sketchy and we're left with only limited answers. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we do not know how significant the impact to each of these variables is.

1 year agoWe have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. However this isn't due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for العاب زوجية survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

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In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women used to be smaller
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and العاب زوجية females at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small however it increased dramatically during the last century.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.