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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Lilliana Kobayashi (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men and how has this advantage increased in the past? There isn't much evidence and we have only some answers. We know there are biological, psychological and environmental factors which play a significant role in women living longer than males, we aren't sure the extent to which each factor plays a role.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this is not because of certain biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for افضل شامبو وبلسم survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This graph shows that although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the difference is less that half a year.

In the richer countries, افضل شامبو وبلسم the advantage of women in longevity used to be smaller
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two distinct points stand out.

There is an upward trend. and women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was very small however, it has grown significantly in the past.

You can check if these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.