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Why women live longer than men?

Analisa Wingfield (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live much longer than men today and how does this benefit increase in the past? We only have a few clues and اضيق وضعية للجماع the evidence is not sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors that play an integral role in women's longevity more than men, we do not know how much each factor contributes.

It is known that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. However it is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is less than half a calendar year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in the richer countries than it is now.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy at the birth in the US in the years 1790 until 2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

9 years agoThere is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however, it has increased significantly during the last century.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.