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Why do women live longer than men?

Sienna Wunderly (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men and how has this advantage increased over time? There isn't much evidence and we only have some solutions. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we do not know how strong the relative contribution of each one of these factors is.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at least part of the reason women live longer than men but not in the past, has to be due to the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brothers.

This graph shows that while there is a female advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

In wealthy countries, the longevity advantage for women was not as great.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand تحاميل مهبلية out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small, but it grew substantially over the last century.

11-1.jpgIt is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, تحاميل مهبلية France, and Sweden.