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Why are women living longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-21)

1 year agoEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live more than men do today and how is this difference growing in the past? The evidence is limited and we only have incomplete solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; However, we're not sure how much the influence of each of these factors is.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this isn't because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart illustrates that, اوضاع الجماع while there is a female advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes as compared to the present.
We will now examine how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart compares the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US live much, اوضاع الجماع much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was very small but it has risen significantly over time.

By selecting 'Change Country in the chart, you will be able to verify that these two points are also applicable to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.