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Why do women live longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-21)

\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0628 \u0632\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0628\u064a\u0639 \u0641\u064a \u0642\u0637\u0631Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? And why the advantage has grown as time passes? The evidence is sketchy and we're left with only some answers. We are aware that behavioral, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we aren't sure how much the influence of each one of these factors is.

In spite of the precise amount, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور we can say that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men in the present but not previously, is to do with the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women exists in all countries, global differences are significant. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of just half a year.

In the richer countries, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be quite small but it increased substantially over the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country' on the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points are applicable to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.