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Why do women live longer than men?

Yvette Bock (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? And why the advantage has grown over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are behavioral, biological and environmental factors which play a significant role in women's longevity more than males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However it is not because of certain biological or كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

The chart above shows that, while the advantage for women is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

The advantage women had in terms of life expectancy was lower in rich countries than it is today.
Let's look at how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy at birth in the US between 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US live much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once quite small It has significantly increased over time.

By selecting 'Change Country in the chart, determine if these two points apply to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.