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Why are women living longer than men?

Analisa Wingfield (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live much longer than men today and why is this difference growing in the past? The evidence is sketchy and we only have incomplete solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we aren't sure what the contribution of each of these factors is.

We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. However it is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, اضيق وضعية للجماع every country is above the diagonal line of parity - it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart above shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half one year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in developed countries than it is now.
Let's look at how the gender advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy at the birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. and women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small but it increased substantially during the last century.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, اضيق وضعية للجماع France, and Sweden.