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Why do women live longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-21)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so more than men do today and how is this difference growing in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral, and environmental factors that play an integral role in women's longevity more than men, we do not know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men today but not previously, is to relate to the fact that some key non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

Interestingly, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور this chart shows that although the female advantage exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

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The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in countries with higher incomes than it is now.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in America have longer lives than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be extremely small however it increased dramatically over the course of the last century.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.