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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men, and why is this difference growing over time? There isn't much evidence and we're only able to provide incomplete solutions. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we do not know how strong the relative contribution of each one of these factors is.

It is known that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. However, this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart below shows that while there is a female advantage in all countries, the differences across countries are often significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half a year.

The advantage for تحاميل مهبلية women in life expectancy was less in the richer countries than it is today.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancies at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was tiny, it has increased substantially in the past.

By selecting 'Change Country in the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and تحاميل مهبلية the UK.