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Why do women live longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-21)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how does this benefit increase as time passes? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors that all play a role in women's longevity more than males, we aren't sure the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the precise amount of weight, we are aware that at least part of the reason women live longer than men in the present and not previously, is to have to do with the fact that some fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, اضيق وضعية للجماع ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that even though women enjoy an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

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In the richer countries, the female advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at the time of birth in the US from 1790-2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And اضيق وضعية للجماع second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small but it increased substantially during the last century.

Using the option 'Change country by country' in the chart, determine if these two points apply to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.