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Why are women living longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-21)

2 days agoEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men and how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? The evidence is sketchy and we have only partial answers. We know there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors which all play a part in women living longer than men, we don't know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

Independently of the exact amount, we can say that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men do today however not as previously, has to have to do with the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, ابر التخسيس especially for survivors, ابر التخسيس ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

This chart shows that, even though women enjoy an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women are 10 years older than men; in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in countries with higher incomes as compared to the present.
Let's now look at how the gender advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very modest but it increased substantially during the last century.

Using the option 'Change country in the chart, confirm that the two points are applicable to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.