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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? And why is this difference growing as time passes? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; but we don't know exactly how much the influence of each one of these factors is.

We are aware that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. But this is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for افضل كريم للشعر men and women. It is clear that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

This chart shows that, while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences could be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

The advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was lower in the richer countries as compared to the present.
Let's now look at the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancies at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two things stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once tiny however, افضل كريم للشعر it has grown significantly over time.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.