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Why do women live longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today, and why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور psychological and environmental factors that play an integral role in women living longer than men, we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But it is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

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The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور every country is above the diagonal line of parity - this means that in all countries baby girls can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart above shows that while the female advantage exists everywhere, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia women have a longer life span than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half an hour.

In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let's now look at how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was tiny It has significantly increased over time.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.