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Why are women living longer than men?

Hassie Blaze (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so much longer than men today and how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? The evidence is sketchy and we only have limited answers. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we're not sure how much the influence of each factor is.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that a large portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men, but not previously, has to relate to the fact that several important non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, تحاميل مهبلية like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for تحاميل مهبلية men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can expect to live longer than her older brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists in all countries, global differences are significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

In rich countries the longevity advantage for women was previously smaller.
Let's now look at how the female advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was very small but it has risen significantly in the past.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.