Комментарии читателей

Why do women live longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men and how has this advantage increased in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to reach an absolute conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and افضل كريم للشعر environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; but we don't know exactly what the contribution of each factor is.

Independently of the exact number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men and not previously, is to do with the fact that a number of important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for افضل كريم للشعر men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a new boy.1

It is interesting to note that although the female advantage is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of just half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was much lower in the richer countries than it is today.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two areas stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very small however it increased dramatically during the last century.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.