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Why do women live longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women live longer than men? Why does this benefit increase as time passes? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw a definitive conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, افضل شامبو وبلسم behavioral and environmental factors which play a significant role in women living longer than men, we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of the precise amount, we can say that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men do today, but not in the past, has to have to do with the fact that several fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , which means that in every country that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, although there is a women's advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries are often significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan, the difference is less than half a calendar year.

In rich countries the longevity advantage for women used to be smaller
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

لانجرى نكهات فراشةFirst, there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was once extremely small however, it has grown significantly with time.

You can verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.