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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men, and why does this benefit increase in the past? There isn't much evidence and we're only able to provide limited answers. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we're not sure what the contribution of each one of these factors is.

In spite of how much weight, we know that a large portion of the reason women live so much longer than men and not in the past, has to do with the fact that some important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, زيوت تطويل الشعر so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

maxresdefault.jpgEverywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

The chart above shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of less that half a year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was much lower in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's examine how the female advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. and women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was quite small however, it has grown significantly over time.

If you select the option "Change country by country' in the chart, determine if these two points are also applicable to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.