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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Shawnee Kiley (2022-04-21)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live more than men do today and how has this advantage increased over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are biological, behavioral, and تحاميل مهبلية environmental factors that all play a role in women living longer than males, we aren't sure the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men do today and not in the past, is to be due to the fact that several key non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from every country could expect to live longer than her older brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

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The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in the richer countries as compared to the present.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the female advantage in life expectancy was quite small but it has risen significantly in the past.

سكر الشفايف بالفواكهBy selecting 'Change Country by country' in the chart, you are able to determine if these two points also apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.