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Why women live longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-21)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live much longer than men today and why is this difference growing over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how significant the impact of each factor is.

In spite of how much number of pounds, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men do today and not in the past, has to do with the fact that several key non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

\u0625\u0646\u0641\u0648\u062c\u0631\u0627\u0641\u064a\u0643 - \u0645\u0631\u0635\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0633\u062a\u0642\u0628\u0644Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her older brother.

This graph shows that while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be substantial. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan, the difference is less than half a calendar year.

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In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancies at birth in the US between 1790 and زيوت تطويل الشعر 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. Men and women in the US live a lot, زيوت تطويل الشعر much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was extremely small, it has increased substantially in the past.

You can confirm that these principles are also applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.