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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Danny Arias (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; but we don't know exactly how significant the impact to each of these variables is.

In spite of how much weight, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live longer than men do today and not in the past, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور has to be due to the fact that some important non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

It is interesting to note that while the female advantage is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of less than half a calendar year.

In wealthy countries, the longevity advantage for women was previously smaller.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

تاتو الحلمات والسرة بالنكهاتThere is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very small, but it grew substantially over the course of the last century.

By selecting 'Change Country from the chart, you will be able to verify that these two points are applicable to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.