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Why do women live longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-21)


\u0623\u0636\u064a\u0642 \u0648\u0636\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639 (\u0627\u0648\u0636\u0627\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0636\u064a\u0642\u0629 \u0644\u0632\u064a\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0639\u0629 ...Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to support a definitive conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; but we don't know exactly how significant the impact of each factor is.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However it is not because of certain biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries baby girls can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists in all countries, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

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In wealthy countries, the longevity advantage for women was smaller
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two points stand كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was quite small It has significantly increased over time.

By selecting 'Change Country' on the chart, you can check that these two points apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.