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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Danny Arias (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present, and why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to support an informed conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we do not know how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

Independently of the exact number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live longer than men, but not previously, is to have to do with the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and افضل شامبو وبلسم relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

The chart below shows that although women have an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women was previously smaller.
Let's examine how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small, but it grew substantially over the course of the last century.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.\u0623\u0636\u064a\u0642 \u0648\u0636\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639 (\u0627\u0648\u0636\u0627\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639 \u0627\u0644\u0636\u064a\u0642\u0629 \u0644\u0632\u064a\u0627\u062f\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062a\u0639\u0629 ...