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Why women live longer than men?

Ava Scutt (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women have a longer life span than men? Why has this advantage gotten larger over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how significant the impact to each of these variables is.

It is known that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can expect to live longer than her older brother.

This chart illustrates that, while there is a female advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.

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In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women was not as great.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US live much, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small however it increased dramatically in the past century.

It is possible to verify that these are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.