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Why women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live much longer than men today and how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't strong enough to make an absolute conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables which all play a part in the longevity of women over men, we do not know what percentage each factor plays in.

We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However it is not because of certain biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line - this means in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that although the female advantage exists in all countries, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan, the difference is just half a year.

In countries with high incomes, the women's advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart shows the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. and women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام The female advantage in life expectancy used to be very modest however it increased dramatically over the course of the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country from the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points also apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.