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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Ava Scutt (2022-04-20)

8 years agoEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and اوضاع الجماع how have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? There isn't much evidence and we're left with only limited answers. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, However, we're not sure how much the influence of each one of these factors is.

Independently of the exact number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men do today but not in the past, is to have to do with the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her brother.

This chart illustrates that, even though women enjoy an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan, the difference is less that half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in rich countries than it is today.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows the men and women's life expectancies at the time of birth in the US from 1790-2014. Two areas stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used be extremely small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

Using the option 'Change country by country' in the chart, you will be able to confirm that the two points apply to other countries with available information: اوضاع الجماع Sweden, France and the UK.