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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Ava Scutt (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present, and why does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence is limited and we're left with only some answers. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral as well as environmental factors which play a significant role in women who live longer than men, we do not know how much each one contributes.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However, this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , which means that in every country a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that even though women enjoy an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

In rich countries the female advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very small however it increased dramatically during the last century.

By selecting 'Change Country from the chart, verify that these two points are applicable to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.