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Why women live longer than men?

Analisa Wingfield (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live more than men do today and how have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? The evidence is sketchy and we're only able to provide some solutions. We are aware that behavioral, biological and اضيق وضعية للجماع environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, but we don't know exactly what the contribution to each of these variables is.

5 years agoWe are aware that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. However this isn't due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can expect to live longer than her brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that although the female advantage exists everywhere, اضيق وضعية للجماع the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

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In countries with high incomes, the longevity advantage for women used to be smaller
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart plots the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very modest but it increased substantially in the past century.

Using the option 'Change country by country' in the chart, determine if these two points apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.