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Why women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-20)


\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0627\u0628 \u0632\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u0641\u0639 \u0639\u0646\u062f \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u062a\u0644\u0627\u0645Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women live longer than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase as time passes? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know how significant the impact to each of these variables is.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men today, but not in the past, is to do with the fact that some fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, اضيق وضعية للجماع like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, اضيق وضعية للجماع ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

This graph shows that while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half one year.

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In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's examine the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the time of birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was once tiny but it has risen significantly in the past.

If you select the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points are applicable to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.