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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Analisa Wingfield (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live more than men do today, and why is this difference growing over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're only able to provide incomplete solutions. We know there are biological, psychological and environmental factors that play an integral role in women who live longer than males, we aren't sure how much each one contributes.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, زيوت تطويل الشعر there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for زيوت تطويل الشعر survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

دهانات-حوائط-202110.jpgEverywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1

This graph shows that although women have an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is less that half a year.

In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women used to be smaller
We will now examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was tiny, it has increased substantially with time.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.