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Why women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw a definitive conclusion. We recognize that biological, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly what the contribution of each of these factors is.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men today, but not in the past, is to have to do with the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line - this means that in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that even though women enjoy an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of less than half a calendar year.

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In countries with high incomes, the female advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend: ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور Men as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be quite small, it has increased substantially over time.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.