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Why do women live longer than men?

Marcos Flannery (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men and why is this difference growing over time? The evidence is limited and we're left with only limited solutions. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how much the influence of each of these factors is.

In spite of the number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men in the present however not as previously, اضيق وضعية للجماع ( is to relate to the fact that several key non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

maxresdefault.jpgEverywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - this means that in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be substantial. In Russia, اضيق وضعية للجماع women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.

In wealthy countries, the women's advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men living in America are living longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.

Using the option 'Change country by country' in the chart, you can determine if these two points are applicable to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.