Комментарии читателей

Why do women have longer lives than men?

Lona Talbott (2022-04-20)

1397031219470420214305624.jpgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women have a longer life span than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is sketchy and we're left with only incomplete answers. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; However, we're not sure how strong the relative contribution of each of these factors is.

We know that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But it is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, افضل كريم للشعر there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

The chart above shows that while the female advantage is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan, the difference is only half a year.

In wealthy countries, the longevity advantage for women was smaller
Let's now look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you will be able to check that these two points are applicable to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.