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Why do women live longer than men?

Vilma Santora (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live much longer than men today and why does this benefit increase over time? There isn't much evidence and we have only some solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام environmental factors contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we're not sure what the contribution to each of these variables is.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men do today and not previously, has to do with the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that although the female advantage is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

In the richer countries, the advantage of women in longevity was previously smaller.
We will now examine how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancies at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two things stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام While the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be tiny, it has increased substantially over time.

Using the option 'Change country by country' in the chart, you will be able to determine if these two points also apply to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.tafsiribnukatsirmuhaqqoq001b-11011501514