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Why do women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men and how is this difference growing over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't strong enough to make an informed conclusion. We know there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables that all play a role in the longevity of women over males, it isn't clear how much each factor contributes.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But it is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, صبغ الشعر بالاسود especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; it means that in all nations the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This graph shows that while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be substantial. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half an hour.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was much lower in developed countries as compared to the present.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy at birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men living in America are living longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is growing: Although the female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has grown significantly in the past.

\u0627\u0628\u0631 \u062a\u062e\u0633\u064a\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0632\u0646 send have pace - delacroixgroup.comIf you select the option "Change country from the chart, you will be able to check that these two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.