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Why do women live longer than men?

Vilma Santora (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men, تحاميل مهبلية and why does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence is limited and we only have some answers. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know what the contribution of each of these factors is.

We have learned that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, تحاميل مهبلية ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity - it means that in all nations a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart shows that, even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan, the difference is only half a year.

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In the richer countries, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was tiny It has significantly increased over time.

It is possible to verify that these points are also applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.