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Why do women live longer than men?

Vilma Santora (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live more than men do today and how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an absolute conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and افضل شامبو وبلسم environmental variables that play an integral role in women who live longer than males, we aren't sure what percentage each factor افضل شامبو وبلسم plays in.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live so much longer than men do today and not in the past, has to have to do with the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

6cdd4df029b53f2e494f12efe2027f4933ac8e23Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart below shows that although there is a women's advantage across all countries, differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men; in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was much lower in rich countries than it is now.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart plots the male and female lifespans at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two specific points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in America have longer lives than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was tiny however, it has grown significantly with time.

You can check if these are applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.